Galen P. Halverson



  • Cox, G.M., Halverson, G.P., Denyszyn, S., Foden, J., and Macdonald, F., in press. Cryogenian magmatism along the north-western margin of Laurentia: Plume or Rift? Precambrian Research. DOI: 10.1016/j.precambres.2017.09.025.
  • Crockford, P.W., Hayles, J., Bao, H., Planavasky, N.J., Bekker, A., Fralick, P.W., Halverson, G.P., Bui, T.H., Wing, B.A., Yongo Peng, 2018. Limited primary production sustained low mid-Proterozoic oxygen levels. Nature, 559, 613–616.
  • Crockford, P.W., Hodgskiss, M.S.W., Uhlein, G.J., Caxito, F., Hayles, J.A., Halverson, G.P., 2018. Linking paleocontinents through D17O anomalies. Geol- ogy, 46, 179–182.
  • Gibson, T.M., Shih, P.M., Cumming, V.M., Fischer, W.W., Crockford, P.W., Hodgskiss, M.S.W., *W¨orndle, S., Creaser, R.A., Rainbird, R.H., Skulski, T.M., and Halverson, G.P., 2018. Precise age of Bangiomorpha pubescens dates the emergence of eukaryotic photosynthesis. Geology, 46, 135–139.
  • Halverson, G.P., *Kunzmann, M., Strauss, J.V., and Maloof, A.C., in press. The Tonian-Cryogenian transition in Svalbard. Precambrian Research. DOI: 10.1016/j.precamres.2017.12.010.
  • Halverson, G.P., Porter, S.M., Gibson, T.M., 2018. Dating the Late Proterozoic stratigraphic record. Emerging Topics in the Life Sciences, 2, 137–147.
  • Hodgskiss, M.S.W, Kunzmann, M., Poirier, A., and Halverson, G.P., 2018. The role of microbial iron reduction in the formation of Proterozoic molar tooth structures. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 482, 1–11.
  • Hoffman, P.F. and Halverson, G.P., 2018. Discussion of “Depositional ages and provenance of the Neoproterozoic Damara Supergroup (northwest Namibia): Implications for the Angola-Congo and Kalahari cratons connection” by Debora B. Nascimento, Renata S. Schmitt, Andre Ribeiro, Rudolph A. J. Trouw, Cees W. Passcier, and Miguel A. S. Basei. Gondwana Research, 58, 235–238.
  • Lu, W., Wörndle, S., Halverson, G.P., Zhou, X., Bekker, A., Rainbird, R.H., Hardisty, D.S., Lyons, T.W., and Lu, Z., 2018. Iodine, oxygen and carbon per- turbations during the Bitter Springs Anomaly. Geochemical Perspectives Letters, 5, 53–57.
  • Macdonald, F.A., Schimtz, M.D., Strauss, J.V., Halverson, G.P., Gibson, T.M., Eyster, A., Cox, G., Mamrol, P., amd Crowley, J.L., in press. The Cryogenian of Yukon. Precambrian Research. DOI: 10.1016/j.precamres.2017.08.015.
  • Shields, G.A., Halverson, G.P., and Porter, S.M., 2018. Descent into the Cryoge- nian. Precambrian Research, DOI: 10.1016/j.precamres.2018.08.015.


  • Barr, C., Tibby, J., Moss, P., Halverson, G., Marshall, J., McGregor, G., Sterling, E., 2017. A 25,000 year record of environmental change from Welsby Lagoon, North Stradbroke Island in the Australian subtropics. Quaternary International, 449, 106–118.
  • Elsworth, G., Galbraith, E., Halverson, G.P., Yang, S., 2017. Enhanced weath- ering and CO2 drawdown caused by latest Eocene strengthening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, Nature Geoscience, 10, 213–217.
  • Eyster, A.E., Fu, R.R., Strauss, J.V., Weiss, B.P., Roots, C.F., Halverson, G.P., Evans, D.A.D., Macdonald, F.A. 2017. Paleomagnetic evidence for a 50º rotation of the Yukon Block relative to Laurentia: Implications for a low-latitude Sturtian Glaciation and the break-up of Rodinia. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 129, 38–58.
  • Gibson, T.M., Wörndle, S., Halverson, G.P., Agíc, H., Lamothe, K.G., Rainbird, R.H., Skulski, T., 2017. Composite stratigraphic section of exceptionally- exposed middle Bylot Supergroup carbonates along Tremblay Sound, Baffin Is- land, Nunavut. In: Summary of Activities 2017, Canada-Nunavut Geoscience Office, 81–92.
  • Goddéris, Y., Le Hir, G., Macouin, M., Donnadieu, Y., Hubert-Théou, L., Dera, G., Aretz, M., Fluteau, F., Li, Z.-X., Halverson, G.P., 2017. Paleogeographic forcing of the strontium isotopic cycle in the Neoproterozoic. Gondwana Research, 42, 151–162.
  • Hoffman, P.F., Abbott, D.S., Ashkenay, Y., Benn, D. I., Brocks, J.J., Cohen, P.A., Cox, G.M., Creveling, J.R., Donnadieu, Y., Erwin, D.H., Fairchild, I.J., Ferreira, D., Goodman, J.C., Halverson, G.P., Jansen, M.F., Le Hir, G., Love, G.D., Macdonald, F.A., Maloof, A.C., Partin, C.A., Ramstein, G., Rose, B.E.J., Rose, C.V., Sadler, P.M., Tziperman, E., Voigt, A., and Warren, S.G., 2017. Snowball Earth climate dynamics and Cryogenian geology and geobiology. Science Advances, 3, e1600983.
  • Hoffman, P.F., Lamothe, K.G., LoBianco, S.J.C., Hodgskiss, M.S.W., Belle- froid, E.J., Johnson, B.W., Hodgin, E.B., Halverson, G.P., 2017. Sedimentary depocenters on Snowball Earth: Case studies from the Sturtian Chuos Formation in northern Namibia. Geosphere, 13, 811–837.
  • Kunzmann, M., Bui, T.H. Crockford, P.W, Halverson, G.P., Scott, C., Lyons, T.W., and Wing, B.A.. 2017. Bacterial sulfur disproportionation constrains timing of Neoproterozoic oxygenation. Geology, 45, 207–210.
  • Kunzmann, M., Gibson, T.M., Halverson, G.P., Hodgskiss, M.S.W., Bui, T.H., Carozza, D.A., Sperling, E.A., Poirier, A., Cox, G.M., and Wing, B.A., 2017. Iron isotope biogeochemistry of Neoproterozoic marine shales. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 209, 85–105.
  • Mendes, M., Lobato, L., Halverson, G.P., Kunzmann, M., Rosière, C.A., Figueiredo e Silval, R., 2017. Iron isotope and REE+Y composition of the Paleoproterozoic banded iron formations and their related iron ores from the Quadrilá´tero Ferrífero, Brazil: Implications for their genesis. Mineralium Deposita, 52, 159–180.
  • Miller, A.J., Strauss, J.V., Halverson, G.P., Macdonald, F.A., Johnston, D.T., and Sperling, E.A., 2017. Tracking the onset of Phanerozoic-style redox-sensitive trace metal enrichments: New data from basal Ediacaran post-glacial strata in NW Canada. Chemical Geology, 457, 24–37.
  • Uhlein, G., Uhlein, A., Stevenson, R., Halverson, G.P., Caxito, F., and Cox, G., 2017. Early to late Ediacaran conglomeratic wedges from a complete foreland basin cycle on the southwestern Sa˜o Francisco craton, Bambu´? Group, Brazil. Precambrian Research, 299, 101–116.



  • Ader, M., Thomazo, C., Sansjofre, P., Busigny, V., Papineau, D., Laffon, R., Cartigny, P., and Halverson, G.P., 2016. Nitrogen isotope interpretation in Precambrian sedimentary rocks: assumptions and perspectives. Chemical Geology, 429, 93–110.

    Angerer, T., Hagemann, S.G., Walde, D., Halverson, G.P., and Boyce, A.J., 2016. Multiple metal sources in the glaciomarine facies of the Neoproterozoic Jacadigo iron formation in the Santa Cruz Deposit, Corumbá, Brazil. Precambrian Geology, 275, 369–393.

    Cole, D.B., Reinhard, C.T., Wang, X., Gueguen, B., Halverson, G.P., Lyons, T.W., Planavsky, N.J., 2016. A shale-hosted Cr isotope record of low atmospheric oxygen during the Proterozoic. Geology, 44, 555–558.

  • Cox, G.M., Halverson, G.P., Poirier, A., Le Heron, D., Strauss, J.V., and Stevenson, R.S. 2016. A model for Cryogenian iron formation. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 433, 280–292.

  • Cox, G.M., Halverson, G.P., Poirier, A., Le Heron, D., Strauss, J.V., and Stevenson, R.S. 2016. A model for Cryogenian iron formation. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 433, 280–292.
  • Cox, G.M., Jarrett, A., Edwards, D., Crockford, P., Halverson, G.P., Li, Z.-L., Collins, A.S., 2016. The Mesoproterozoic Roper Seaway. Chemical Geology, 440, 101–114.
  • Crockford, P.W., Cowie, B.R., Johnston, D.T., Hayles, J., Halverson, G.P., Sugiyama, I., Pellerin, A., Bui, T.-H., Hoffman, P.F., Macdonald, F.A., and Wing, B.A., 2016. Triple oxygen isotope constraints on the evolution of the earliest Ediacaran marine sulfur cycle. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 435. 74-83.

  • Fairchild, I.J., Fleming, E.J., Bao, H., Benn, D.I., Boomer, I., Dublyansky, Y.V., Halverson, G.P., Hambrey, M.J., Hendy, C., McMillan, E.A., Sp¨otl, C., Stevenson, C.T.E., and Wynn, P.M., accepted. Continental carbonate facies of a Neoproterozoic panglaciation, NE Svalbard. Sedimentology, 63, 443–497.

    Fairchild, I.J., Bonnand, P., Condon, D., Davies, T., Fleming, E.J., Grassineau, N., Halver-
    son, G.P., Hambrey, M.J., McMillan, E.M., McKay, E., Parkinson, I.J., and Stevenson, C.T.E., 2016. Rhythmic dolomitic shales between Cryogenian glacials, NE Svalbard: chemostratigraphy and genesis. Precambrian Research, 281, 128–154.

  • Shields-Zhou, G.A., Porter, S.M., and Halverson, G.P., 2016. A new rock-based definition for the Cryogenian Period (circa 720–635 Ma). Episodes 39, 3–8.

  • Uhlein, G.J., Uhlein, A., Halverson, G.P., Stevenson, R., Caxito, F., Cox, G.M., Carvalho, F.M.G., 2016. The Carrancas Formation, Bambu´? Group: A Pre-Marinoan Record on the Southern Margin of the Sa˜o Francisco craton. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 71, 1–16.


  • Collins, A.C., Patranabis-Deb, S., Alexander, E., Bertram, C.N., Falster, G.M., Gore, R.J., Mackintosh, J., Dhang, P.C., Payne, J.L., Jourdan, F., Backé, G., Halverson, G.P., and Wade, B.P., 2015. Detrital mineral age, radiogenic isotope stratigraphy, and tectonic significance of the Cuddapah Basin, India. Gondwana Research, 28, 1294-1309.

  • Cox, G.M., Strauss, J.V., Halverson, G.P., Schmitz, M.D., McClelland, W.C., Stevenson, R.S., and Macdonald, F.A., 2015. Kikiktat Volcanics of Arctic Alaska—Melting of harzburgitic sub-continental lithospheric mantle associated with the Franklin Large Igneous Province. Lithosphere, 7, 275–295.

  • Kunzmann, M., Halverson, G.P., Scott, C., Minarik, W.G., and Wing, B.A., 2015. Geo- chemistry of Neoproterozoic black shales from Svalbard: Implications for oceanic redox conditions spanning Cryogenian glaciations. Chemical Geology, 417, 383–393.

  • Lee, C., Love, G.D., Fischer, W.W., Grotzinger, J.P., and Halverson, G.P., 2015. Organic matter cycling during the Ediacaran Shuram excursion. Geology, 43, 1103–1106.

  • Sperling, E.A., Wolock, C., Morgan, A.S., Gill, B.C., Kunzmann, M., Halverson, G.P., Macdonald, F.A., Knoll, A.H., Johnston, D.T., 2015. Statistical evaluation of iron geochemical data from Proterozoic through Paleozoic basins. Nature, 523, 451–454.

  • Sossi, P.A., Halverson, G.P., Nebel, O., and Eggins, S.M., 2015. Combined separation of Cu, Fe and Zn from rock matrices and improved analytical protocols for stable isotope analysis. Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research, 39, 129–149.

    Strauss, J.V., Macdonald, F.A., Halverson, G.P., Schrag, D.P., Knoll, A.H., 2015. Strati- graphic evolution of the Neoproterozoic Callison Lake Formation: Linking the break-up of Rodinia to the Islay carbon isotope excursion. American Journal of Science, 315, 891–944.




  • Ader, M., Sansjofre, P., Halverson, G.P., Trindade, R.I.F., Kunzmann, M., and Nogueira, A.C.R., 2014. Ocean redox structure across the Late Neoproterozoic Oxygenation Event: A nitrogen isotope perspective. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 396, 1– 13.
  • Halverson, G.P., 2014. Marine isotope stratigraphy. In: W.J. Rink, J.W. Thompson, A.J.T. Jull, J.B. Paces, and L. Heaman (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Scientific Dating Methods. Springer. DOI: 10.10007/978-94-007-6326-5 301-1.
  • Halverson, G.P. and Théou-Hubert, L., 2014. Seawater Sr curve. In: W.J. Rink, J.W. Thompson, A.J.T. Jull, J.B. Paces, and L. Heaman (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Scientific Dating Methods. Springer. DOI: 10.10007/978-94-007-6326-5 143-1.
  • Kunzmann, M., Gutzmer, J., Beukes, N.J., and Halverson, G.P., in press. Lithofacies of the Palaeoproterozoic Mooidraai Formation (South Africa) and implications for the tectonic setting of the world’s largest manganese deposit. South African Journal of Geology, 117, 173–192.
  • Kunzmann, M., Halverson, G.P., Macdonald, F.A., Hodgskiss, M., Sansjofre, P.D., Schu- mann, D., and Rainbird, R.H., 2014. The early Neoproterozoic Chandindu Formation of the Fifteenmile Group in the Ogilvie Mountains. In: K.E. MacFarlane, M.G. Nordling, and P.J. Sack (Eds.) Yukon Exploration and Geology 2013. Whitehorse, YT (Yukon Geological Survey), 93–107.
  • Nettle, D., Halverson, G.P., Cox, G.M., Collins, A.S., Schmitz, M., Gehling, J., Johnson, P.R, and Kadi, K., 2014. A middle–late Ediacaran volcano-sedimentary record from the eastern Arabian-Nubian Shield. Terra Nova, 26, 120–129.
  • Rebesco, M., Domack, E., Zgur, F., Lavoie, F., Leventer, A., Brachfeld, S., Willmott, V, Halverson, G., Truffer, M., Scambos, T., and Smith, J., 2014. Boundary condition of grounding lines prior to collapse, Larsen-B Ice Shelf, Antarctica. Science, 345, 1354–1358.
  • Riedman, L.A., Porter, S.M, Halverson, G.P., Hurtgen, M.T., Junium, C., 2014. Organic- walled microfossil assemblages from glacial and interglacial Neoproterozoic units of Australia and Svalbard. Geology, 42, 1011–1014.
  • Sossi, P.A., Halverson, G.P., Nebel, O., and Eggins, S.M., 2014. Combined separa- tion of Cu, Fe and Zn from rock matrices and improved analytical protocols for stable isotope analysis. Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research. DOI: 10.1111/j.1751- 908X.2014.00298.x





  • Haberlah, D., Williams, M.J., Halverson, G.P., Hill, S.M., Hrstka, T., Butcher, A.R., McTainsh, G.H., Glasby, P. 2010. Loess and floods: high-resolution multi-proxy data of Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) slackwater deposition in the Flinders Ranges, semi-arid South Australia. Quaternary Science Reviews, 19, 2673-2693.
  • Halverson, G.P., Wade, B.P., Hurtgen, M.T., Barovich, K.M., 2010. Neoproterozoic chemostratigraphy. Precambrian Research, 182, 337–350.
  • McKirdy, D.M., Thorpe, C.S, Haynes, D.E., Grice, K., Krull, E.S., Halverson, G.P., Webster, L.J., 2010. The biogeochemical evolution of the Coorong during the mid- to late Holocene: An elemental, isotopic and biomarker perspective. Organic Geochemistry, 41, 96-110.
  • Steer M.A, Halverson, G.P., Fowler, A.J., and Gillanders, B.M., 2010. Stock discrimination of southern garfish (Hyporhamphus melanochir) by stable isotope ratio analysis of otolith carbonate. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 89, 269–381.
  • Swanson-Hysell, N.L., Rose, C.V., Calmet, C., Halverson, G.P., Hurtgen, M.T., and Maloof, A.C., 2010. Cryogenian onset of a dynamic carbon cycle. Science, 358, 608–611.


  • Gaucher, C., Sial, A.N., Halverson, G.P., and Frimmel, H.E. (Eds.), 2009. Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Tectonics, Global Change and Evolution: A Focus on Southwestern Gondwana. Developments in Precambrian Geology, Vol. 16. Elsevier, 466 pp.
  • Gaucher, C., Sial, A.N., Halverson, G.P., and Frimmel, H., 2009. The Neoproterozoic and Cambrian: A time of upheavals, extremes, and innovations. In: Gaucher, C., Sial, A.N., Halverson, G.P., and Frimmel, H.E. (Eds.). Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Tectonics, Global Change and Evolution: A Focus on Southwestern Gondwana. Developments in Precambrian Geology, Vol. 16. Elsevier, pp. 3-11.
  • Halverson, G.P., Hurtgen, M.T., Porter, S.M., and Collins, A.C., 2009. Neoproterozoic-Cambrian biogeochemical evolution. In: Gaucher, C., Sial, A.N., Halverson, G.P. and Frimmel, H.E. (Eds.) Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Tectonics, Global Change and Evolution: A Focus on Southwestern Gondwana. Developments in Precambrian Geology, Vol. 16 (Elsevier), pp. 351–365.
  • Hoffman, P.F., Calver, C., and Halverson, G.P., 2009. Cottons Breccia of King Island, Tasmania: glacial or non-glacial, Cryogenian or Ediacaran? Precambrian Research, 172, 311-322.
  • Le Hir, G., Donnadieu, Y., Goddéris, Y., Pierrehumbert, R.T., Halverson, G.P., Macouin, M, Néedélec, A., and Ramstein, G., 2009. The snowball Earth aftermath: exploring the limits of continental weathering processes. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 277, 453-463.
  • Miller, R. McG., Frimmel, H., and Halverson, G.P , 2009. Neoproterozoic to Early Palaeozoic Evolution of Southwestern Africa: Passive Continental Margin Evolution. I In: Gaucher, C., Sial, A.N., Halverson, G.P., and Frimmel, H.E. (Eds.). Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Tectonics, Global Change and Evolution: A Focus on Southwestern Gondwana. Developments in Precambrian Geology, Vol. 16. Elsevier,. pp. 161-181.


  • Hoffman, P.F. and Halverson, G.P., 2008. Otavi Group of the western Northern Platform, the Eastern Kaoko Zone and the western Northern Margin Zone. In: R. McG. Miller (Ed.) The Geology of Namibia, Vol. 2, Geological Survey of Namibia (Windhoek), pp. 69-136.


  • Domack, E.W., Halverson, G.P. Willmott, V., Leventer, A., Brachfield, S., Ishman, S 2007.  Spatial and temporal distribution of ikaite crystals in Antarctic glacial marine sediments. United States Geological Survey and The National Academies, USGS OF-2007-1047, Extended Abstract 015, 5p.
  • Halverson, G.P. and Hurtgen, M.T., 2007. Ediacaran growth of the marine sulfate reservoir. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 263, 32-44.
  • Halverson, G.P., Dudas, F., Maloof, A.C., and Bowring, S.A 2007. Evolution of the 87Sr/86Sr Composition of Neoproterozoic Seawater. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology,  Palaeoecology, 256, 103-129.
  • Halverson, G.P., Maloof, A.C. Schrag, D.P., Dudas, F., and Hurtgen, M.T, 2007. Stratigraphy and geochemistry of a ca 800 Ma carbon isotope interval in northeastern Svalbard. Chemical Geology, 237, 23-45.
  • Hoffman, P.F., Halverson, G.P., Domack, E.W., Husson, J.M., Higgins, J.A., and Schrag, D.P., 2007.. Are basal Ediacaran (635 Ma) post-glacial “cap-dolostones” diachronous? Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 258, 114-131.


  • Halverson, G.P., 2006. A Neoproterozoic chronology. In S. Xiao, A.J. Kaufman (Eds.) Neoproterozoic Geobiology and Paleobiology, Topics in Geobiology 27. Springer, pp. 231-271.
  • Hurtgen, M.T., Halverson, G.P., Arthur, M., and Hoffman, P.F., 2006. Sulfur cycling in the aftermath of a Neoproterozoic (Marinoan) snowball glaciation: evidence for a syn-glacial, sulfidic deep ocean; Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 245, 551-570.
  • Maloof, A.C., Halverson, G.P., Kirschvink, J.L., Schrag, D.P., Weiss, Benjamin P., and Hoffman, P.F., 2006. Combined paleomagnetic, isotopic, and stratigraphic evidence for true polar wander from the Neoproterozoic Akademikerbreen Group, Svalbard; Geological Society of America Bulletin, 118, 1099-1124.


  • Halverson, G.P., Hoffman, P.F., Schrag, D.P., Maloof, A.C., and Rice, A.H., 2005. Towards a Neoproterozoic composite carbon-isotope record; Geological Society of America Bulletin, 117, 1181-1207.
  • Hurtgen, M.T., Arthur, M.A., and Halverson, G.P., 2005. Neoproterozoic S isotopes, the evolution of microbial S species, and the burial efficiency of sulfide as sedimentary pyrite. Geology, 33, 41-44.


  • Halverson, G.P., Maloof, A.C., and Hoffman, P.F. 2004. The Marinoan glaciation (Neoproterozoic) in northeast Svalbard. Basin Research, 16, 297-324.
  • Halverson, G.P, Hoffman, P.F., Kaufman, A.J., and Schrag, D.P. 2002.  A major perturbation of the carbon cycle before the Ghaub glaciation (Neoproterozoic) in Namibia: prelude to snowball Earth?; Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 3, 10.1029/2001GC0002.
  • Hoffman, P.F., Halverson, G.P., and Grotzinger, J.P. 2002. Comment: Are Proterozoic cap carbonates and isotopic excursions a record of gas hydrate destabilization following Earth's coldest interval? (Kennedy, M.J. et al. 2001); Geology, 30, 286-287.
  • Schrag, D.P., Berner, R.A., Hoffman, P.F., and Halverson, G.P., 2002. On the initiation of a snowball Earth. Geochemistry, Geophysics, and Geosystems, 3, 10.1029/2001GC000219.
  • Hoffman, P.F., Kaufman, A.J., and Halverson, G.P., 1998. Comings and goings of global glaciations on a Neoproterozoic tropical platform in Namibia. GSA Today, 8(5), 1-9.
  • Hoffman, P.F., Kaufman, A.J., Halverson, G.P., and Schrag, D.P,. 1998. A Neoproterozoic snowball Earth. Science, 281, 1342-1346.